Malaria is heavy disease caused by protozoa, which can be characterized with fever, increase in spleen and liver and signs of anemia.
The mentioned form of Malaria disease is caused by Plasmodium vivax, which is protozoan parasites from the genus Plasmodium and family Plasmodidae. Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax is called Malaria tertiana or vivax malaria. Many people know this type of malaria as 3 days malaria, named on the duration of the disease. The disease is nature-endemic, transmissible antroponozis. The source of the disease is sick person or parasite carrier. During the 3-days malaria the person becomes a source of infection in the first signs of the disease. Plasmodium vivax can live inside the human being more than 8 years.
The disease can be transmitted most often transmissible route. Moreover, a person can be infected by three days malaria in blood charms by medical instruments, during transplantation of organs infected by malaria and placental beacon of sick fetus. The disease is very hard and really is one of the most dangerous diseases of the world, which is really easy for infection. The carriers of the disease are mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Malaria is the most common parasitic disease in the world, killing millions of people every year. The disease is transmitted endemic in Africa, Asia, Central and South America.
The immunity in malaria species, strain and stage specific by humoral and cellular immunity does not protect against the reinvation. According to the clinical course, malaria can occur as mild, moderate or severe. The incubation period of the Three-day malaria is 10-21 days. The disease begins with nonspecific symptoms similar to flu. Malaria attack lasts 6-12 hours, and occurs in three phases: feeling cold, high temperature of 38-40 degrees and rapid drop in temperature and profuse sweating. Typical symptoms of the three-day malaria are the swelling and tenderness of the liver and spleen and anemia. Malaria caused by P.vivax usually has a benign and rare has complications.
The diagnosis is based on the epidemiological data to reside in endemic areas, where there is malaria. Also need to be made and laboratory, biochemical and haematological tests and parasitological-proof of the cause of malaria. After microscopic evidence of malaria parasites quickly notice is sent to Ministry of Health and treatment is started immediately. Patient discharge happens after triple negative test for malaria in peripheral blood.
Treatment of Malaria tertiana is carried out with anti-malarial preparations. The purpose of treatment for malaria can be therapeutic (to stop development of erythrocyte forms), antigrowing (interference with the forms) and epidemiologic.