Malaria is a protozoal disease, characterized by attacks of fever, anemia with an enlarged liver and spleen. The malaria disease is caused by single-celled parasites of the genus Plasmodium, family Plasmodidae, class Sporozoaea. It is caused by 4 types of plasmodium, one of which is the Plasmodium falciparum and forms Malaria Tropica. This is the most dangerous type of malaria and the infection can be caused by sick or parasite person. In Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite gametocytes are growing slowly and long-lived, as appear in the peripheral blood, 8-12 days after the asexual forms and remain 2-3 months after their disappearance. The disease is transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. The cyclical temperature attacks occur when a threshold of parasitemia. Upon the receipt of parasites in the blood releases pigment and metabolic products with the pyrogenically and toxic effects that can interfere with thermoregulatory centers.
The disease begins with malaise, headache, anorexia and fever. The disease occurs in an enlarged liver and spleen, which are painful and hurt. Usually during the infection occur an anemic syndrome, which is a result of hemolysis of erythrocytes and various autoimmune process, deposition of red cell antibodies. In patients with tropical malaria observed cerebral symptoms with its most serious complication – coma.
The disease occurs with a few periods – incubation, primary, latent, late and convalescent. The incubation period of Malaria Tropica is 8-9 or 16 days. It is severe in naive patients, pregnant women and children. They can develop complications, such as coma, pulmonary edema, hypoglycemia, coagulopathy and etc. The relapses of malaria occur in untreated patients with a Plasmodium falciparum by insufficient strength or resistance to 4-amino-quinoline medicines.
The malaria diagnosis, which is caused by Plasmodium falciparum is made on the basis of epidemiological data to reside in countries where malaria is characterized by disease-tropical and subtropical climates and labaratorni Research – haematological, biochemical and parasitological. The treatment of tropical malaria should begin immediately after diagnosis. Malaria necessarily be hospitalized and treated in wards parasite diseases.
The prevention of malaria is personal and general. People who go to countries with endemic malaria spread should be subject to individual chemoprophylaxis. It is important for early detection, diagnosis and radical treatment of patients with tropical malaria. Malaria morbidity and media persons are dispensary after treatment – spend R.falciparum dispensary is for 1 year.